J.R.R. Tolkien: "All that is gold does not glitter; not all those who wander are lost; the old that is strong does not wither; deep roots are not reached by the frost."City Vision University:
Enneagram of PersonalityAlthough it is usually only understood and used as a typology (a model of personality types) the Enneagram of Personality is also taught in ways that focus on its potential in developing higher states of being, essence and enlightenment.
The origins and historical development of the Enneagram of Personality are matters of dispute. Wiltse and Palmer have suggested that similar ideas to the Enneagram of Personality are found in the work of Evagrius Ponticus, a Christian mystic who lived in 4th century Alexandria. Evagrius identified eight logismoi ("deadly thoughts") plus an overarching thought he called "love of self". Contemporary Enneagram understandings are principally derived from the teachings of Oscar Ichazo and Claudio Naranjo. Naranjo's theories were partly influenced by some earlier teachings of G. I. Gurdjieff.
Most, but not all, Enneagram of Personality theorists teach that a person's basic type is modified, at least to some extent, by the personality dynamics of the two adjacent types as indicated on the enneagram figure. These two types are often called "wings". A person of the Three personality type, for example, is understood to have points Two and Four as their wing types. The circle of the enneagram figure may indicate that the types or points exist on a spectrum rather than as distinct types or points unrelated to those adjacent to them. A person may be understood, therefore, to have a core type and one or two wing types that influence but do not change the core type. This aspect of Enneagram theory was originally suggested by Claudio Naranjo and then further developed by some of the Jesuit teachers.
The circle of the enneagram figure may indicate that the types or points exist on a spectrum rather than as distinct types or points unrelated to those adjacent to them. A person may be understood, therefore, to have a core type and one or two wing types that influence but do not change the core type. The "stress" and "security" points (sometimes referred to as the "disintegration" and "integration" points) are the types, connected by the lines of the enneagram figure, that are believed to influence a person in more adverse or relaxed circumstances.
Each of the personality types is usually understood as having three "instinctual subtypes". These subtypes are believed to be formed according to which one of three instinctual energies of a person is dominantly developed and expressed. The instinctual energies are usually called "self-preservation", "sexual" (also called "intimacy" or "one-to-one") and "social". On the instinctual level, people may internally stress and externally express the need to protect themselves (self-preservation), to connect with important others or partners (sexual), or to get along or succeed in groups (social). From this perspective, there are 27 distinct personality patterns, because people of each of the nine types also express themselves as one of the three subtypes.
An alternative approach to the subtypes looks at them as three domains or clusters of instincts that result in increased probability of survival (the "preserving" domain), increased skill in navigating the social environment (the "navigating" domain) and increased likelihood of reproductive success (the "transmitting" domain). From this understanding the subtypes reflect individual differences in the presence of these three separate clusters of instincts. It is generally believed that people function in all three forms of instinctual energies but that one usually dominates. According to some theorists another instinct may also be well-developed and the third often markedly less developed.
Nines: Mediators, Peacemakers, PreservationistsNines are ruled by their empathy. At their best they are perceptive, receptive, gentle, calming and at peace with the world. They also, however, tend to dissociate from conflicts and to indifferently go along with others people's wishes. They may also simply withdraw and act via inaction. They fear the conflict caused by their ability to simultaneously understand opposing points of view and seek peace of mind above all else. Nines are especially prone to dissociation and passive-aggressive behavior.
Characteristic Role: Peacemaker
Ego Fixation: Indolence (Daydreaming)
Holy Idea: Love
Basic Fear: Loss, Fragmentation, Separation
Basic Desire: Wholeness, Peace of Mind
Temptation: Avoiding Conflict, Avoiding Self-Assertion
Vice/Passion: Sloth (Disengagement)
Stress Point: Six
Security Point: Three
Ones: Reformers, Critics, PerfectionistsPeople of this personality type are focused on personal integrity. Ones can be wise, discerning and inspiring in their quest for the truth. They also tend to dissociate themselves from their flaws or what they believe are flaws (such as negative emotions) and can become hypocritical and hyper-critical of others, seeking the illusion of virtue to hide their own vices. The greatest fear of Ones is to be flawed and their ultimate goal is perfection.
Characteristic Role: Reformer
Ego Fixation: Resentment
Holy Idea: Perfection
Basic Fear: Corruption, Imbalance
Basic Desire: Goodness, Integrity, Balance
Temptation: Hypocrisy, Hypercriticism
Stress Point: Four
Security Point: Seven
Eights: Leaders, Protectors, ChallengersEights value their own strength and desire to be powerful and in control. They concern themselves with self-preservation. They are natural leaders, who can be either friendly and charitable or dictatorially manipulative, ruthless and willing to destroy anything in their way. Eights seek control over their own lives and destinies and fear being harmed or controlled by others.
Characteristic Role: Challenger
Ego Fixation: Vengeance (Objectification)
Holy Idea: Truth
Basic Fear: Being Harmed, Controlled, Violated
Basic Desire: Self-Protection
Temptation: Thinking They Are Completely Self-Sufficient
Vice/Passion: Lust (Forcefulness)
Stress Point: Five
Security Point: Two
Albert Einstein: "Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow. The important thing is not to stop questioning."Human Metrics:
Jung Typology/Meyers-Briggs Test
Your Type: ENTPENTP stands for Extravert, iNtuitive, Thinking, Perceiving and represents individual's preferences in four dimensions characterizing personality type, according to Jung's and Briggs Myers' theories of personality type. Because you appear to have marginal or no (3%) preference of Extraversion over Introversion, characteristics of more than one personality type may apply to you: ENTP and INTP.
Extravert(3%) iNtuitive(28%) Thinking(25%) Perceiving(41%)
- You have marginal or no preference of Extraversion over Introversion (3%)
- You have moderate preference of Intuition over Sensing (28%)
- You have moderate preference of Thinking over Feeling (25%)
- You have moderate preference of Perceiving over Judging (41%)
"Clever" is the word that perhaps describes ENTPs best. The professor who juggles half a dozen ideas for research papers and grant proposals in his mind while giving a highly entertaining lecture on an abstruse subject is a classic example of the type. So is the stand-up comedian whose lampoons are both funny and incisively accurate.
ENTPs are usually verbally as well as cerebrally quick, and generally love to argue--both for its own sake, and to show off their debating skills. ENTPs tend to have a perverse sense of humor as well, and enjoy playing devil's advocate. This sometimes confuses, even angers, those who don't understand or accept the concept of argument as a sport.
ENTPs are as innovative and ingenious at problem-solving as they are at verbal gymnastics; on occasion, however, they manage to outsmart themselves. ENTPs can be prone to "sharp practice" – especially cutting corners without regard to the rules if it's expedient – or, their juggling acts may simply be so over-ambitious they collapse.
Both at work and at home, ENTPs are very fond of "toys" -- physical or intellectual, the more sophisticated the better. Once these have been "solved" or become too familiar, however, they’ll be replaced with new ones.
ENTPs are basically optimists, but in spite of this (perhaps because of it?), they can become petulant about small setbacks and inconveniences. (Major setbacks they regard as challenges, and tackle with determination.) ENTPs have little patience with those they consider wrongheaded or unintelligent, and show little restraint in demonstrating this. In general, however, they are genial, even charming, when not being harassed by life.
In terms of their relationships with others, ENTPs are capable of bonding very closely and suddenly with their loved ones. Some appear deceptively offhand with their nearest and dearest; others are so demonstrative that they succeed in shocking co-workers who've only seen their professional side. ENTPs are also quick to spot a kindred spirit, and good at acquiring friends of similar temperament and interests.
ENTPs may sometimes give the impression of being largely oblivious to the rest of humanity except as an audience: good, bad, or potential. In general this is unfair – but it can be difficult to get an ENTP’s attention when they’re not immediately aware of you, especially for an Introvert.
The best approach in communicating with an ENTP is to be straightforward. No games – they’ll win. No "pulling rank" – they’ll just want to put you in your place. No apologies – you’ll undermine yourself. Try "I need/want to talk to you."
LearningAn ENTP’s interest in learning a subject is motivated by their desire to answer the question, “In what ways can the given problem be solved?” The more solutions they learn of, the greater their interest in the given topic and the greater their desire to understand it. They are motivated to study something when it allows them to find solutions to complex, intellectually challenging tasks.
Generally, ENTPs build successful careers in areas requiring intensive intellectual efforts, calling for creative approach and presenting intellectual challenge. Because of the characteristics mentioned above, ENTPs are often found in research, development and analytical departments. ENTPs often make a very successful career in academia thanks to their strong and versatile way of thinking along with great erudition.
An ENTP’s learning is improved when:
- Learning is systematic and intensive
- Material is delivered on a conceptual basis
- The subject really captures their interest or is intellectually challenging
- Material is presented from multiple points of view or using various examples (improves retention)
- Material is delivered at a fast pace, as ENTPs quickly sort and process information
An ENTP’s learning is hindered when:
- Material is trivial
- They don’t feel that the knowledge they gain takes their understanding of the topic to the next level
- There is a need to carry out a large number of routine tasks
CommunicationIn the process of communication, ENTPs try to bring to light the logical connections between phenomena and events and provide explanations for them. They find great satisfaction in having their inferences recognized by the other party.
What helps successful communication for an ENTP:
- The topic of discussion is conceptual in nature
- There is a need to find hidden, unobvious possibilities
- The discussion requires a good understanding of logical connections
- The topic calls for a creative approach
- The other party is an intuitive/thinking (NT) or intuitive/feeling (NF) person: When conversing with people of intuitive/feeling types (NF), including ENFJ, INFJ, ENFP, and INFP personality types, ENTPs need to adhere to communication mostly based on ideas, concepts and theories. Communication between ENTPs and people in this group, as a rule, touches on variety of topics and is beneficial to both parties.
What hinders successful communication for an ENTP:
- The topic material has weak logical connections
- The topic is of purely practical, mundane nature
- The topic heavily involves the finer feelings of the soul for too long
- Long communication with sensory/feeling (SF) people: For ENTPs, communication is most difficult with people of sensory/feeling types (SF), including ESFJ, ISFJ, ESFP, and ISFP personality types. When conversing with SF people, ENTPs should adhere to communication that is based on feelings, facts, and concrete sensations.
Martin Luther King: "Every man must decide whether he will walk in the light of creative altruism or in the darkness of destructive selfishness."16 Personalities:
Our approach has its roots in two different philosophies. One dates back to early 20th century and was the brainchild of Carl Gustav Jung, the father of analytical psychology. Jung’s theory of psychological types is perhaps the most influential creation in personality typology, and it has inspired a number of different theories, including our own. We use the acronym format introduced by Myers-Briggs due to its simplicity and convenience – however, we have redefined several Jungian traits and introduced an additional one, simplifying our model and bringing it closer to the latest developments, namely the dimensions of personality called the Big Five personality traits.
Personality: INFP ("The Mediator")
INFP personalities are true idealists, always looking for the hint of good in even the worst of people and events, searching for ways to make things better. While they may be perceived as calm, reserved, or even shy, INFPs have an inner flame and passion that can truly shine. Comprising just 4% of the population, the risk of feeling misunderstood is unfortunately high for the INFP personality type – but when they find like-minded people to spend their time with, the harmony they feel will be a fountain of joy and inspiration.
Being a part of the Diplomat (NF) personality group, INFPs are guided by their principles, rather than by logic (Analysts), excitement (Explorers), or practicality (Sentinels). When deciding how to move forward, they will look to honor, beauty, morality and virtue – INFPs are led by the purity of their intent, not rewards and punishments. People who share the INFP personality type are proud of this quality, and rightly so, but not everyone understands the drive behind these feelings, and it can lead to isolation.
Few personality types are as poetic and kind-hearted as INFPs. Their altruism and vivid imagination allow INFPs to overcome many challenging obstacles, more often than not brightening the lives of those around them. INFPs' creativity is invaluable in many areas, including their own personal growth.
Yet INFPs can be easily tripped up in areas where idealism and altruism are more of a liability than an asset. Whether it is finding (or keeping) a partner, making friends, reaching dazzling heights on the career ladder or planning for the future, INFPs need to put in a conscious effort to develop their weaker traits and additional skills.
As a relationship takes hold, people with the INFP personality type will show themselves to be passionate, hopeless romantics, while still respecting their partners' independence. INFPs take the time to understand those they care about, while at the same time helping them to learn, grow and change. While INFPs are well-meaning, not everyone appreciates what can come across as constantly being told that they need to improve – or, put another way, that they're not good enough. People with this personality type are generous in their affection, with a clear preference for putting the pleasure of their partners first – it is in knowing that their partners are satisfied that INFPs truly feel the most pleasure.
The true friends of people with the INFP personality type tend to be few and far between, but those that make the cut are often friends for life. The challenge is the many dualities that this type harbors when it comes to being sociable – INFPs crave the depth of mutual human understanding, but tire easily in social situations; they are excellent at reading into others' feelings and motivations, but are often unwilling to provide others the same insight into themselves – it's as though INFPs like the idea of human contact, but not the reality of social contact.
NFPs don't like conflict or picking sides, and will do everything they can to maintain harmony and cooperation. Most of this comes down to good communication, which INFPs prefer to conduct in person, for that personal touch, or in writing, where they can compose and perfect their statements. People with the INFP personality type avoid using phones if they can, having the worst of both worlds, being both detached and uncomposed. INFPs also like to feel like their conversations are meaningful, and while they enjoy exploring philosophy more than most, their patience for arbitrary hypothetical brainstorming or dense technical discussions is limited.
It is perhaps more challenging for INFPs to find a satisfying career than any other type. Though intelligent, the regimented learning style of most schools makes long years earning an advanced degree a formidable undertaking for people with the INFP personality type – at the same time, that's often what's needed to advance in a field that rings true for them. INFPs often wish that they could just be, doing what they love without the stress and rigor of professional life.
Where INFPs will not thrive is in a high-stress, team-heavy, busy environment that burdens them with bureaucracy and tedium. INFPs need to be able to work with creativity and consideration – high-pressure salespeople they are not. It can be a challenge to avoid these roles, as they are the basis for so much starting work, and it's often a risk to break away into something less dependable, but more rewarding. To find a career that resonates with INFPs' values though, that's more than just a job, sometimes it's just what needs to be done.
Bob Dylan: "I change during the course of a day. I wake and I'm one person, and when I go to sleep I know for certain I'm somebody else."Psych Central:
Five-Factor ModelThe personality test that you've just taken is based on the Five Factor Model of personality. The Big Five model is able to account for different traits in personality without overlapping. Empirical research has shown that the Big Five personality traits show consistency in interviews, self-descriptions and observations. Moreover, this five-factor structure seems to be found across a wide range of participants of different ages and of different cultures.
The Psych Central Personality Test is based upon the IPIP 10-item scale. International Personality Item Pool (IPIP): A Scientific Collaboratory for the Development of Advanced Measures of Personality Traits and Other Individual Differences (http://ipip.ori.org/).
This trait reflects a person's open-mindedness, and interest in culture and art. People who score high on this trait tend to be imaginative, creative, and to seek out cultural and educational experiences. People who score lower on this trait tend to be more down-to-earth, less interested in art and more practical in nature. You scored really high on this trait, suggesting you love art and try to keep open-minded.
This trait reflects how organized and persistent a person is in pursuing their goals. People who score high on this trait tend to be more methodical, well-organized and dutiful than others. People who score lower tend to be less careful, less focused and more likely to be distracted from tasks. You scored average for this trait, suggesting you're somewhere between being well-organized and sometimes distracted.
This trait reflects a person's preference for certain kinds of social situations, and how they like to behave in such situations. People high in extraversion are energetic and seek out the company of others. People low in extraversion -- what some might call introverts -- tend to be more quiet and reserved. You scored really high on this trait, suggesting you have a lot of energy and tend to enjoy most social situations.
This trait reflects how we tend to interact with others, especially in terms of our altrusim and friendliness. People who score higher in agreeableness tend to be more trusting, friendly and cooperative than others. People who score lower tend to be more aggressive and less cooperative. You scored really high on this trait, suggesting you are a very friendly, cooperative and trusting person.
This trait reflects the tendency for a person to experience negative thoughts and feelings. People who score high on this trait tend to be more prone to insecurity and emotional distress. People who score lower tend to be more relaxed, less emotional and less prone to distress. You scored really low on this trait, suggesting you're less emotional and fairly secure in who you are.
Steve Jobs: "Your time is limited, so don't waste it living someone else's life. Don't be trapped by dogma — which is living with the results of other people's thinking. Don't let the noise of others' opinions drown out your own inner voice. And most important, have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. They somehow already know what you truly want to become. Everything else is secondary."
» Washington Post: "Meyers-Briggs: Does it pay to know your type?"
» McCrae et al., 1991: "An Introduction to the Five-Factor Model and its Applications"